Journal of Current Research in Food Science
2023, Vol. 4, Issue 2, Part A
Neonatal Diabetes Mellitus: Unravelling the clinical, genetic, and nutritional dimensions for enhanced management
Author(s): Ushasee Garai, Saptarshi Mukherjee, Poulami Chakraborty and Souvik Tewari
Abstract: Neonatal Diabetes Mellitus (NDM) stands as a rare and intricate form of diabetes, presenting unique challenges in its clinical, genetic, and nutritional dimensions. With a prevalence of approximately 1 in 350,000 live births, NDM remains a seldom-encountered clinical entity. The genetic intricacies of NDM are notably characterised by autosomal dominant inheritance, where a single mutated allele of specific genes, such as KCNJ11, ABCC8, or INS, can be transmitted from one generation to the next, thus perpetuating the condition. Furthermore, the interplay of environmental factors, including gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), can modulate the genetic landscape of NDM through DNA methylation and the differential expression of NDM-related genes. Recent studies have unveiled a pivotal role of gut microbiota, specifically, the abundance of certain bacteria like P. Copri and E. Cloacae, in influencing gene expression and, consequently, the epigenetic modulation of NDM risk. At the molecular level, NDM pathogenesis involves multiple mechanisms, including defective insulin regulation due to mutations in genes such as GLUT-2, SUR1, and Kir6.2, and disruptions in proinsulin processing. On the clinical front, managing NDM requires a multifaceted approach. Pharmacological therapy primarily involves the use of sulfonylureas like glibenclamide, which target the defective KATP channels in pancreatic beta cells, facilitating insulin release. Non-pharmacological strategies encompass gene therapy, nutritional therapy, Nutraceuticals, and nutrigenomics, offering a comprehensive management framework for this complex and rare condition, aiming to enhance the quality of life for affected individuals.
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How to cite this article:
Ushasee Garai, Saptarshi Mukherjee, Poulami Chakraborty, Souvik Tewari. Neonatal Diabetes Mellitus: Unravelling the clinical, genetic, and nutritional dimensions for enhanced management. J Curr Res Food Sci 2023;4(2):14-24.